Monday, April 19, 2021

'Are'are and Shuara

The collection The Human Voice in Music compiled by Carlos Reynoso starts with a shamanic song of the Ecuadorian Shuara (familiar name: Jivaro). "For  those who wish to form an idea that is not biased by the temptation of  exoticism or by anachronistic particularistic yearnings, the collection  begins here." These are Reynoso's words (via Google Translate) which I (should) take to heart. Right away, within the first song of the collection, my integrity is being challenged. While having certain thoughts on the beginnings and essence of music, there are a number of factors at play I remain ignorant about. Reynoso must be serious about fighting misconceptions. Now the Shuar (Jivaro), is a good place to start because if there's one culture that has been misrepresented throughout western literature it must be the Amazonian Shuar. According to Reynoso the Shuara Shamanic Song exists in the grey area between speech and singing. The recorded performance is a manifestation of an altered state of consciousness that is patterned in such a way that it should be considered music. [Reynoso] Isabel Aretz and Felipe Ramon y Rivera, who I assume are responsible for recording this gem, characterize this incantation as a song. If the shaman heard on the recording is male or female isn't mentioned. In last year's top 100 I assumed that this was a recording of a woman but now I have my doubts. It shouldn't matter. Most shamans are men but in some cultures (including the Shuar) sometimes women become shaman, then there are other cultures, particularly in East Asia where most shamans are women. Listening to the song I assumed I heard a woman's voice but listening to other shamans recorded, both Shuar and from other cultures, it is not uncommon, even characteristic, for a (male) shaman to use a falsetto voice. I realized the shaman recorded by Aretz and Ramon y Rivera could be a man after watching a video of Dan Ramon, a Shuar shaman who was recently recorded by a site called Amazon Explorer. I decided to use a still from this video for the illustration of the Shuar Shaman Song. He is pictured on the right while Isabel Aretz is on the left. Aretz (1909-2005) was an Argentine Venezuelan composer and ethnomusicologist. The song was number 15 in 2020 and now, in the Top 100 2021, resides at number 4, for the time being.
No doubt exist as to the gender of the performers of the song "Aamamata na Kaukaurara" that is number 67 of the Top 100 2020. The performers Aaresi and Il'eresi were recorded by Hugo Zemp in 1977 in the Solomon Islands. Aamamata is a genre of song used for funerals. Kaukaurara is the composer of the song. The title thus translates as Funeral Lament by Kaukaurara. Another  song by the same two women appears on Zemp's Musique 'Are'are. The image above comes from a still from that film. The 'Are'are are a cultural group from the largest Island in the Solomon archipelago which is Malaita.


Friday, April 16, 2021

Albania and Ashaninka, numbers 7 of 2021 and 66 in 2020.

Albanian mourners, Spiro Shetuni
The song illustrated in the above painting is one of several for which I could find not a whole lot of information about. The song title is Lamento de Albania which I found on the collection La voz humana en la musica parte 1. It's a Spanish language website and was compiled by the Argentinian Carlos Reynoso, professor of Anthropology at the the University of Buenos Aires. His liner notes to the Albanian recording are short; A funeral song by a group of about 12 women. The song is syllabic, it does not have words. "A collective clamor organized according to a strophic structure" is how Reynoso described it. The source is the Institute of Popular Culture of Tirana. No date. So I looked up the Institute of Popular Culture of Tirana. The Institute does not exist anymore, not using that name anyways but it lead me to the name Spiro Shetuni, "the West's foremost authority on the subject of Albanian music." Shetuni is an Albanian American whose nationality is Arumanian (I had to look that one up too, the term designates Eastern Romance people, and their language). He moved to the United States in 1992 and was for a period employed at the Ohio State University. Between 1993 and 2000 he taught a course called An Introduction to the Music of the World's Peoples. This at exactly the same time I was at OSU. I was a grad student there between 1994-1997. I stayed on as a lecturer and Gallery assistant until 2011.  I wish I knew then what I know now and I certainly would have taken this course. In 2005 I organized an exhibition of record sleeve collections and did come in contact with Margarita Mazo, a professor in the cognitive music department. Mazo had recorded Old Believers: Music of the Nekrasov Cossacks, a cd on Smithsonian Folkways that I owned a copy of and that was in the Top 100 at the time. I had never heard of Shetuni then let alone met him (he had already moved to South Carolina anyways.)

Back then I was in middle of compiling a cd with examples of cry singing, mostly funeral laments. Throughout the world existed (still exists but disappearing) this practice of mourning through song and I had gathered examples from Ireland (where it's called keening to Papua New Guinea, and everywhere in between. Albania was not included in that collection but had I known the existance of this recording I would have certainly included it on the cd, and would have contacted Shetuni in the process.


The image of the wailing Albanian women I found in Death Rituals in Albania: An Anthropological Review by Gentian Vyshka and Bardhyl Cipi, published on Antrocom an online journal of Anthropology in 2010. Vyshka and Cipi used the 1985 photo courtesy of the Albanian Film Archive, Tirana.The caption reads: "The wailing ritual and laments in Southern Albania are led from a professional mourner, a woman that might be not a relative of the dead, and hired for that function." The caption also reaffirmed me that I was painting Albanian women. I had started this painting already without some of the context and I was not sure if all 8 individuals were women. I've painted half the photo, the four people on the left in the picture.

Ashaninka Indian, Josefat Roel Pineda

The Ashaninka songs, at #66 in the Top 100 2020 was also part of the Top 100 2019. In 2019, while painting the illustration, I did do some contextual research as to what I was listening to. The track Ashaninka songs are actually two short songs that appear on a project initiated by Mickey Hart (of the Grateful Dead) for the Library of Congress called Endangered Music Project. The first cd of which is called The Spirit Cries: Music from the Rainforests of South America and the Caribbean (Rykodisc 1993). The sections on the cd involving the Peruvian Indians Shipobo and Ashaninka were recorded in 1963 and 1964 by Enrique Pinella and Josefat Roel Pineda. I may assume that Pinella, a Peruvian avant-garde composer, was responsible for the Shipobo recordings and Pinella for the Ashaninka but I can't be sure. The otherwise well documented CD does not distinguish. While writing about bot sets of recordings last years I spoke about Pinella and omitted Pineda. Now, while focusing on the Ashaninka only, I'm reversing this and chose a portrait of Pineda to include in the drawing of an Ashaninka woman. The woman I depicted is anonymous, as are the performers of the Ashaninka songs. The photo source I used comes from the Goteborg Ethnographic Museum and I found it on a Brazilian website documenting Amazonian tribes. I could not find photographs made by either Pinella or Pineda during their field recording sessions in the Amazon region of Eastern Peru. I commented in the text on the Ashaninca last year on the tattos seen in older, vintage, photographs of many Ashaninka women. Beautiful face tattoos that have now been replaced by face painting. Talking about tattoos: I can't get this image out of my head of the tattoos on the back of Grimes, the partner of Elon Musk. She covered her back in abstract, very expressive white marks resembling doodles or scribbling, or the style of Antonin Artaud's drawings or Alberto Giacometti's. I saw it on the Daily Mail this morning. They probably put it up to feed the disgust people have for the ultra-rich extravagant escapades. To shock their viewers. I found the tattoos rather impressive. Easily one of the best non-tribal or ceremony related tattoos I've ever seen.


Into the Arctic

Annie Kappianak
Numbers 64 and 65 of the Top 100 2012 happen to belong to the same series of recording and come from the same album: Songs of the Inuit Iglulik. Both songs were recorded by Jean-Jacques Nattiez in 1977. That the songs appear next to one another in the list is a coincidence; I do not place the songs into the list as I fancy, the songs appear by virtue of a number system. Both the Huangahaaq (#65) and the Nirdliruyartak (#64) happened to end up with the exact same number of points. Both Huangahaaq and Nirdliruyartak are a form of throat singing games but different from katajjait (a song style). Compared to the dozens of katajjait recordings that have featured in recent top 100s they were also recorded further north from the Hudson Bay area most katajjait originated from. Number 64 was recorded in Pond Inlet and 65 in Iglulik. Both locations are close to one another and well inside the Arctic Circle. The Inuit: Iglulik cd is well documented. It comes with a 55 page booklet with numerous illustrations, all photographs by Jean-Jacques Nattiez. The photo of Annie Kappianak (together with Rose Iquallijuk) that appears in the booklet is the only throat game song illustrated though and is of the performer of number 65 be it with a different partner than on the recording. Kappianak teams up with Jeanne Amainuk on a Huangahaaq game. The song "is not based on a text but on the juxtaposition of syllables or words, connected more for their sonorous qualities than for telling a story." "The game consists of making the partner lose [his] seriousness, using diverse modulations of the word hang. The women pull wry faces."

Iglulik Inuit, Jean-Jacques Nattiez
The nirdliruyartak is similar to the katajjait of Northern Quebec. The nirdliruyartak is a complex game of alternating high and low sounds and is difficult to learn. The sounds are made while both inhaling and exhaling. The high sequence of sounds is called nirdliruyartak, which means goose cry, and is the name of the game. The image I used for this song does not appear in the cd booklet but appears in Inuit Throat-Games and Siberian Throat Singing: A Comparative, Historical, and Semiological Approach by Jean-Jacquez Nattiez. [University of Montreal, 1999] The women in the photo by Nattiez are not identified by name but are Iglulik.

Friday, April 9, 2021

Of Violent People and of Friendly People

Indianerinnen mit kind (Shuar)/Michael J. Harner

 The Shuar, generally better known by their previous name Jivaro, were one of the most violent tribes written about in the anthropological history. They were head hunters, the source of the once collectable shrunken heads. (Earlier I wrote about the practice of infanticide among the Shuar.) The Jivaro warriors were feared throughout the region by their enemies but also by their own women. While the status of women throughout the world is usually not anywhere near the status of equality, the Jivaro women were worse off. Beatings were common. Only later in life, when widowed, or when they were children they could live in relative freedom. The suicide rate of Shuar women were among the highest in the world. Yet, their songs are among the sweetest and happiest I've encountered. Michael J. Harner recorded several dance songs and lullabies that are included on the Folkways LP 'Music of the Jivaro of Ecuador' along with war songs and other songs by men. Shaman's songs were recorded too. One freedom Shuar women enjoyed was to become a shaman. Not many neighboring tribes had female shamans. Harner was the first to study the Shuar in depth in the 1950s, earlier records are anecdotal, biased, or tainted by biased interpreters from neighboring tribes. Rafael Karsten, in the 1930s was the first anthropologist to attempt a study of the then called Jivaro, but later had to admit to Harner that all his information came from a translator belonging to a tribe not friendly to the Shuar. Harner tracked this individual down for his research and corrected Karsten's otherwise useful data. The photograph I used for this image was taken by Karsten in 1930. Harner, later in his career, became known for his research and books on (neo)shamanism and other spiritual new age practices. Shuar Social Dance Song (2): Female Chorus in #63 in the Top 100 2020.
Marjorie Shostak/!Kun San man
The historical contrast between the Shuar of Ecuador and the !Kung San of Botswana couldn't be greater. The Shuar had a violent death rate among men under 25 at a staggering 42%, the highest number ever recorded in the world, the number !Kung San men in contrast, is less than 0.5%. San women are considered equal. Marjorie Shostak, seen on the left, spend many years with the San people. She recorded the 'Sitenga with one man's voice' in Botswana in 1970. It's at #5 in the Top 100 2021. The song, by /Tilkay (also known as "Jimmy" from /Xai/Xai, itself was not illustrated in the liner notes to the album so I used another image from these notes. The man on the right was photographed by Shostak and is labeled: "A !Kung San man reclining." The ! and / symbols used in the text are vocal sounds, the ! represents the click sound made famous by Miriam Makeba in "The Click Song." One more thing: the object/subject differentiation disappears even further compared to the last painting I wrote about a few days back. The only photo I could find of a 'sitengena' being played was this very image of Marjorie Shostak.

Monday, April 5, 2021

Number 4 and number 62

Sylvia Saghorekao and Sabina Seso
As many entries in the Top 100 are repeats from previous years, my familiarity with these recordings grow. The focus of the latest paintings and drawings is on the academic work of the musicologists and anthropologists who recorded in the field. I did, however, not include an image of Hugo Zemp here as I already painted him several times and already gained quite a bit of contextual information on the years Hugo Zemp spent in the Solomon Islands. What is new this year is that I now know the names of the performers and I found an image to go with it. This is from a photograph by Zemp included in the liner notes for Polyphonies des Îles Salomon (Guadalcanal et Savo) from 1978, the original appearance of the recording. The recording is called Ratsi Rope, rope is a repertoire of feminine songs and the word 'ratsi' means beginning. There are however no words to the song. The vocal sounds are an imitation of sounds in nature. Ratsi Rope is number 62 from the Top 100 2020.
Deben Bhattacharya and Tangkhul Great Story Teller
Number 4 from 2021 was also part of the Top 100 2020. I decided to use the same source image as I did last year. I could not find a photograph by Bhattacharya appropriate to illustrate his recording of the Tangkhul song. Deben Bhattacharya is a legendary ethnomusicologist from an old Bengali Brahmin family. (I've painted him before as well, the last time was in 2017 and somehow I painted his shirt then as orange as I did this time using a black and white photo from Wikipedia.) While Bhattacharya is of the highest social order in India, the indigenous tribal Tangkhul have lesser esteem in Indian society. The 2021 series of double portraits investigates issues like these. The juxtaposition of object and subject, and how this relationship evolved throughout the history of music recording. The further collapse the distinction in this painting I reversed the backgrounds from the two respective source photographs. The Tangkhul Great Story Teller now sits in the recording studio while Bhattacharya takes his place in from of the story teller's dwelling.

Wednesday, March 31, 2021

Objects and subjects

I made a second painting directly after I finished the first. The painting represents the provisional number 2 in the Top 100 2021. Like the first one, the location is again Nunavut, Canada. This time further north in Kinngait on Baffin Island. The painting represents the track "Three Katajjait," first on the Unesco record "Canada: Inuit Games and Songs." A Katajjaq (singular form) is a game song performed by two woman who stand close together. They mimic each other's sounds until one starts laughing, she is the loser. The three katajjait were performed by five different performers and again I do not know if the (nameless) woman on the left in the painting is either on of the five. I do now that it comes from a performance of a katajjaq and the the photograph I used was taken at around the same time (1974) the recording was made. The photo was taken by Nicole Beaudry, who also recorded the "Three Katajjait." The woman on the right is Nicole Beaudry, be it from a much more recent photograph of her. There's a lot of laughter on both the numbers 1 and 2 recordings during their respective performances. Beaudry herself suggests that this is because the music of both recordings are games and not considered music by the Inuit themselves. I argue that it is music, and the laughter an expression of the joy felt when two souls merge.
The contrast of the two men depicted in the above image is stark. The intentional juxtaposition of object and subject in these series of paintings (The Top 100 2021) is especially pronounced in illustrations of older recordings. Anthropology has evolved from the colonialist attitude of the 19th and early 20th centuries to the immersive contextual discipline it is today. The term ethnomusicology was not in use yet in 1949 when Adolphus Peter Enkin recorded "The mourning 'call' of Melville and Bathurst Islands. The photo credit of aboriginal rock-painter on the left that I used is Mount Ford. I assume this refers to Charles Mountford, the leader of the 1948 expedition to Australia's Northern Territory (where both mentioned islands are situated.)  Enkin, an Anglican clergyman, was at odds with his then boss Mountford. Enkin was a champion in the fight against prejudice and racism, and was an outspoken advocate for equal rights for indigenous Australians. A.P. Enkin to his credit, broke through the divide that considered indigenous peoples as primitive and as savage. Extended contact and communication will accomplish a better understanding, I assume. Still the object-subject relation is clearly visible. Starting in the late1960s it becomes standard practice for anthropologists and ethnologists to not only extend contact with their subject but to live with them, often for many years, to understand the cultures they research. The drawing below, belonging to the Top 100 2020, illustrates the music of the Hamar in Southern Ethiopia. Husband and wife team of anthropologists Ivo Strecker and Jean Lydall, and their two two young children, went to live with the Hamar in the 1970s.
I just watched (part of) a movie by Rosie Strecker, who was the daughter of Strecker and Lydall and lived with the Hamar for several years since she was 4 months old. The movie documents her return to Ethiopia many years later. The story is heartwarming and strengthens my belief in the goodness of humanity. Object and subject collapses in this movie as it does in the best of modern anthropology, and ethnomusicology.


Friday, March 26, 2021

Of Yamanas and Inuits

Yamana man holding oar

 The Yamana, or Yaghan people were the southernmost inhabitants of the earth. They are often grouped with the Selk'nam people as well other groups that lived in Terra del Fuego in the south of both Argentina and Chile, but they are a distinct other group with their own unique language. I've written a lot about the Selk'nam before as I have been intrigued by their remarkable traditions of body painting and the cosmogenesis it enacts. I reproduced two photographs of Selk'nam people, taken by Martin Gusinde in the early 1920s, in my art appreciation textbook You are an Artist. It was also Martin Gusinde who was the first to record the Selk'nam as well as their neighbors to the south the Yamana. Canto Yamana, at #58 in the Top 100 2020, is a recording from 1923 of a shaman. When Gusinde writes about the music of the Yamana he talks about boatmen songs. The singing of the Yamana, according to the early anthropologist Erich von Hornbostel, is the most primitive of the world, using only two notes. 

Baker Lake Eskimo and Laura Bolton


While the drawings for the Top 100 2020 continue to be made until all 100 are done, I started the Top 100 for the year 2021 already. The Top 100 2021 exhibition is scheduled for next summer in Dublin, Ohio and I felt like starting early. I also didn't paint much for a while and now with my studio in working order it is really nice to be out of the house. (A lot of activities, such as my job, are still being done from home.) I had a plan. The concept for the new 100 paintings was to paint double portraits, featuring the musician on one side of the canvas, and the one who recorded it on the other. I figure the juxtaposition is an interesting one. I have now one done and a second one started. I'm still not 100% sure how to tackle certain aspects, like text, in the painting. I experimented here but may change the markings later. The 1 in the top right corner means it's number 1 in the Top 100 2021. This may change because the making of the list for this year is in progress. I am certain, however, that Girl's Game, sung by Agnutnak and Matee, two-fifteen year old Inuit women from Baker Lake, Canada, will be part of the list when it is final. The song was recorded by Laura Bolton in 1974 at Baker Lake and appeared on the Folkways album The Eskimos of Hudson Bay and Alaska. The photograph I used to paint the young woman was taken by Bolton and was included in the liner notes for the record. The song was also listed last year. When I painted an image for the Top 100 2020 I used the same photo. I did include the rest of the family then.

Sunday, March 21, 2021

Gesture Drawing

Karin Johansson-Edvards, Matts Arnberg, and Elin Lisslass
Pretty much all of the drawings that comprise the Top 100 2020 started out with a gestural sketch. Gesture drawings are an invaluable aid to achieve essential characteristics of the people portrayed. Usually little evidence of the initial sketch remains once the drawing is finished but today I left it, considered the drawing done after a half an hour of sketching. The one difference of this gesture drawing compared to others is that instead of a black pencil colored pencils were used. I selected the image above from a Swedish website dedicated to the history of kulning (a type of cattle call singing used primarily by women from the mountainous northern part of Sweden) thinking I needed to illustrate a certain anonymous kulning song recorded by Radio Sweden in 1965. After a good amount of research I concluded that the song was likely recorded by Matts Arnberg, and that the singer most likely would be either Karin Johansson-Edvards, or Elin Lisslass. Historical recordings of kulning are rare and featured usually one of the two singers mentioned. The mp3 file I have of the song originates from the collection La Voz Humana en la musica, parte I. During my research I found the original Swedish source, an LP called Lockrop & Vallatar: Ancient Swedish Pastoral Music. Listening to small soundbites from the latter I realized my recording didn't match. It turned out I had mislabeled my recording, confusing it with the other kulning recording on La Voz Humana that comes directly afterwards. It's a live recording of a kulning song sung during the 1995 Falun Folk Festival. This is the recording belonging to the Top 100 2020. I have now fixed the error.


Thursday, March 18, 2021

Neocolonialism or not neocolonialism?

Anna Balint Puskas

Babinga woman performing Yeli
The drawings for the Top 100 2020 are evolving into illustrations for songs with multiple images. Most of the music in the list are sourced from well documented anthropological recordings. Data, photos, and contextual information is available for many of the recordings. The amount of text in these drawings is also increasing and the attitude towards the drawings is closer to the drawings for the top 100 I did in the beginning in the early 1990s. I do like the juxtaposition of drawings of the performer and the recorder, who is in many cases a Frenchman. This idea I intend to explore further in the works for the next series that I'm going to start soon. For the Top 100 2021 I intend to use oil paint on 11 x 14 inch canvases, horizontally oriented and containing double portraits. I think it will be interesting to portray the musicians from all parts of the world, mostly women, next to a portrait of the ethnomusicologist who is mostly a white middle-aged European. These are not intended to become criticism for an attitude resembling neocolonialism but rather an honest juxtaposition of subject and object. Both as individuals.

Sunday, March 14, 2021

Gardu's Hut


Gardu(?), 14x11 inches, 2021
The Top100 2020 is presented (and created) in order of appearance. Now I don't even have to think about who I will paint next. For number 54 I had an enormous amount of data and pictures available as the album Music der Hamar is nothing short of an academic work of anthropology. The only thing lacking in the collection are captions underneath the photographs. I may assume that the woman I painted is Gardu but I can't be sure. Gardu is the woman who was recorded in her hut singing a calming down song to her son. I never heard of the calming down genre which is distinct from a lullaby but the Hamar have a name for this type of song: Laensha. The words in the song are analyzed too by the group of anthropologists responsible for the album. The most noteworthy aspect of the lyrics is that the mother addresses her son with a feminine pronoun. The song was recorded in 1973 by Ivo Strecker in Hamar territory in Southern Ethiopia. Bernard Strecker took the photo I used for the painting.

Wednesday, March 10, 2021

Moving Along


Jofirsti Lungisa playing a musical bow 

The Top 100 2020 contains a larger than usual number of repeats from the year before and again a great number of tunes from 2020 will be repeated again in 2021. There's plenty of different music I play but those recordings that make up the playlist from which I compile my thoughts on the origin of music is getting more established as time goes on. And so do my thoughts. The playlist is front and center of my music appreciation path. At some point when I have enough time and ambition I am going to collect and edit my writings on this subject as they appeared in this blog and other places and compile them into a cohesive paper forming a theory on the origin of music, of art, and creativity. The theory is a meditation on all the big questions concerning the origin and nature of being using insights from hundreds of others. The theory itself is far too big and broad for one person to research. The theory that is forming in my hand circumnavigates materials handily available on line and is not depending on independent research at all but rather on the implications of the sounds on the playlist. And empathy. I haven't posted much recently but have continued the work towards completing the illustrations for the Top 100 2020. The nine works shown here are all from this year and are done on 11 x 14 drawing paper. Ink is the most common material used throughout but a number of other media have also been used. Represented are numbers 45 through 53:

  • 45: Jofirsti Lungisa – Nandel'ekhaye
  • 46: San, Tin Can Bow Solo
  • 47: Yeyi "Hut Song" by thirteen young girls and children from Cameroon
  • 48: Norma Tanega – You're Dead
  • 49: Ya'ak Keodaeng and Ya'Seu Keodaeng – Teum singing
  • 50: Sun Ra and His Akestra featuring June Tyson – Space is the Place
  • 51: Nellie Echalook and Rebecca Natialuk – Katajjait
  • 52: Grande danse, ahidus by a mixed chorus of Ben aissa Berbers
  • 53: Bell'ilba (lullaby) by a Kel ansar Tuareg mother
!Kung San playing a hunting bow

Baka gathering

Norma Tanega
Bamboo on the Mountains (cover), Frank Porschin

Sun Ra, preparation sketch for stencil

Sun Ra, stencilprint (A/P)

Nellie Echalook and Rebecca Natialuk

Berber Family

Tuareg mother and child, Bernard Lortat-Jacob

Sunday, December 13, 2020



Gond Ceremonial Group, 11x14, ink on paper, 2020
A fun byproduct of illustrating these various peoples from all different places of the world is that I'm learning all sorts of trivia about these peoples. The Gond, mainly of Madhya Pradesh in India, were believed to have once ruled Gondwana. Most people know Gondwana as a supercontinent that existed millions of years ago, but there was also a Gondwana in India. The supercontinent, from the Jurassic epoch, a time long before humans existed, was actually named after the Indian Gondwana. Another interesting piece of trivia is how marriages are arranged among the Gond. If a woman becomes a widow she would marry the closest bachelor from the husband related side. The practice is observed to this day. The Gond are pretty well assimilated into the modern Indian economy so it may happen that a young urban professional is married to his aunt who is 40 years his senior. The song in the top 100 is only identified as Gond Song on The Columbia World Library of Folk& Primitive Music, Vol. 12: India it is found on, was recorded in 1952, a time perhaps, when they were much less assimilated into modern life, when India was still a British colony. The sound of the song sure is very far removed from western as well as Indian popular music of the 1950s.

I had fun drawing a group, instead of usual individual. I could explore rhythmic mark making. I'm thinking already about next year's concept even though this year's isn't even half way finished yet. The exhibition of the Top 100 2021 is already scheduled to take place in Dublin, Ohio during the summer of 2022 even though the work for it has not started yet. The works on 14x11 paper that I'm working on right now will exhibited during the spring of next year in my own The Top Archive and Studio space.